RESTful API Design: simplify associations, sweep complexities under the HTTP ?
In the previous post in this series about Pragmatic REST API design, I talked about choosing plural versus singular nouns and concrete names over abstract. See RESTful API Design: plural nouns and concrete names.
This time we'll explore API design considerations when handling associations between resources and parameters like states and attributes.
Resources almost always have relationship to other resources. What's a simple way to express these relationships in a RESTful world?
Let's look again at the API we modeled in nouns are good, verbs are bad - the API that interacts with our dogs resource. Remember, we had two base URLs:
We're using HTTP verbs to operate on the resources and collections. Our dogs belong to owners. To get all the dogs belonging to a specific owner, or to create a new dog for that owner, do a GET or a POST:
Now, the relationships can be complex. Owners have relationships with vetinerians, who have relationships with dogs, who have relationships with food, and so on. It's not uncommon to see people string these together making a URL 5 or 6 levels deep. Remember that once you have the primary key for one level, you don't need to include the levels above that because you've already got your specific object. In other words, you shouldn't need too many cases where a URL is deeper than what we have above -
resource name/identifier/resource name.
Sweep complexity behind the HTTP ?
Most APIs have intricacies beyond the base level of a resource. Complexities can include many states that can be updated, changed, queried, as well as the attributes associated with a resource.
Make it simple for developers to use the base URL by putting optional states and attributes behind the HTTP question mark. To get all red dogs running in the park:
In summary, keep your API intuitive by simplifying the associations between resources, and sweeping parameters and other complexities under the rug of the HTTP question mark.
Next time, what about errors?